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We tested for a correlation between this measure and visual motion detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people show enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory region, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual "Planum temporale boundaries in dating" detection thresholds.
This same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as important for functional reorganization. When an individual is deprived of a sensory modality, the other senses can compensate for the loss with behavioural enhancements. This effect has been demonstrated in both deaf and blind humans, as well as in animal models of sensory deprivation for a review, see [ 12 ]. Generally, the sensory enhancements that occur after deprivation are attributed to the extra processing power that is afforded by the recruitment of the deprived sensory cortex, which is thought to reorganize to support the enhancement.
Support for this relationship between enhanced sensory behaviour and cross-modal processing comes from human research on blindness, where enhanced performance on various tasks correlates with task-related activity [ 3 — 7 ], and cortical thickness [ 8 ] of visual regions in the occipital cortex.
While the evidence for this relationship is convincing, no research to date has established a direct connection between cross-modal plasticity and enhanced sensory behaviour in deaf people.
In deaf people, research on enhanced sensory behaviour and cross-modal plasticity has progressed mostly independently.
In terms of sensory compensation, much research has focused on the role of vision. While some behavioural enhancements have been attributed to changes in visual attention for a review, see [ 11 ]others appear to be due to changes to basic sensory processing.
These include enhancements to motion detection [ 12 ], discrimination of the angle of motion direction [ 13 ], a larger field of view [ 1415 ], and faster reaction times to visual stimuli [ 16 — 18 ], with a possible bias for peripheral visual fields [ 1920 ] but see [ 1718 ]. Some of these behavioural enhancements may be supported by changes to both the peripheral and early cortical components of the visual system.
For example, visual field area in deaf people correlates with neural rim area on the retina, denotative of increased retinal ganglion cells, and changes to the retinal neural fiber layer distribution [ 15 ]. Additionally, reaction times for target detection correlate with early
Planum temporale boundaries in dating potentials in the visual cortex [ 17 ]. However, none of these behavioural enhancements have been directly associated with plasticity in the auditory cortex.
In early-deaf people, this activity consistently occurs in the right hemisphere planum temporale and adjoining superior temporal gyrus [ 21 — 27 ]. The left planum temporale [ 2526 ] and primary auditory cortex [ 2122 ] also show activity in response to motion versus static stimuli, although these regions are not activated in every study [ 232627 ].
While these studies clearly demonstrate the responsivity of the deprived sensory cortex to the nondeprived stimuli, they do not assess its association with enhanced sensory performance, as has been done in the human blind population with correlation and regression analyses e.
Testing the relationship between the auditory cortex and vision is necessary to demonstrate that cross-modal reorganization in deaf people supports enhanced visual abilities [ 28 ]. In the current study, we hypothesized that compensatory visual enhancements in deaf people are supported by plasticity in auditory cortex.
Based on parallel research questions in the blind [ 8 ], we reasoned that if a cortical region supports sensory enhancement in the deaf, then its cortical thickness will vary in relation to behavioural performance. Although much previous research
Planum temporale boundaries in dating examined anatomical changes in the deaf brain, results have concentrated on changes that are associated with sensory "Planum temporale boundaries in dating" [ 29 — 37 ] rather than compensatory plasticity.
In auditory regions, these changes include decreased white matter volume [ 30333438 ] and white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion-weighted MRI [ 29 — 3135 ]. In contrast, grey matter volume in auditory regions appears to be preserved after deafness [ 33 — 38 ].
Few studies have examined cortical thickness, and no changes have been documented between deaf and hearing adults in auditory regions with this measure [ 35 ]. Given the lack of evidence for atrophy of grey matter after deafness, we expected that cortical thickness might capture compensatory plasticity, rather than disuse-related atrophy.
To test our hypothesis, we used visual motion detection thresholds as a gauge for enhanced visual abilities, based on evidence for improved performance in the deaf as compared to hearing on this task
Planum temporale boundaries in dating 12 ]. Dating a med student video projects
With T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cortical thickness and tested for a correlation with behaviour in eight regions of interest ROIs: Our primary prediction was that the cortical thickness of the right PT would correlate with enhanced visual abilities, given its consistent involvement in cross-modal processing of visual motion.
Based on mixed results from previous research, we also explored the involvement of the left PT and bilateral primary auditory cortex, located within HGS. Finally, in addition to auditory ROIs, we considered the possibility that enhanced visual motion detection in deaf people is supported by changes to the visual system rather than, or in addition to, cross-modal processing in auditory regions.
The experiment was approved by the Research Ethics Board at the Montreal Neurological Institute and all participants gave written informed consent. All participants took part in an earlier
Planum temporale boundaries in dating in our laboratory, which identified enhanced visual motion detection thresholds in deaf people [ 12 ]. Ten participants reported congenital deafness and one became deaf at six months of age due to meningitis. Two participants confirmed that their deafness was hereditary, and the remaining eight had unknown or unconfirmed etiologies.
Six participants were native sign language users who had typical language acquisition through early-life interaction with deaf family members, and five participants learned sign language in school around the age of five years and used a combination of signed French, home signs, and gestures to communicate prior to this.
All participants used sign language as their primary language of communication once learned and used hearing aids during their childhood but stopped during their adolescence or earlier.
Threshold measures for visual motion detection were taken from our earlier study, and the details of the psychophysical procedure have already been published [ 12 ]. We used a two-alternative forced-choice procedure, in which participants maintained central fixation while viewing two simultaneously presented sinusoidal gratings grating size: In each trial, one of the two gratings was randomly selected to move while the other
Planum temporale boundaries in dating stationary, and participants were instructed to indicate, by button press, which of the two gratings was moving and to guess if uncertain.
The speed of the motion varied according to a one-up one-down adaptive staircase procedure, with a 1: Eye movements were monitored with an Eyelink eye tracker SR Research, Mississauga, ON, Canadaand trials were discarded from the staircase if
Planum temporale boundaries in dating was broken. The staircase terminated after 15 reversals, which were averaged to give the threshold measure for that run. Participants completed 8 runs, and the median threshold across these runs was used as the final threshold measure.
We used the Freesurfer Image Analysis Suite http: The details of this procedure are described in previous publications. In brief, the steps include removal of nonbrain tissue [ 42 ], intensity normalization [ 43 ], tessellation of grey and white matter borders, automated topology correction [ 4445 ], surface deformation [ 4647 ], surface inflation [ 48 ], and registration to a spherical atlas
Planum temporale boundaries in dating 49 ].
Each brain surface was automatically parcellated into 56 regions in each hemisphere, according to the Destrieux atlas [ 50 — 52 ].
From this atlas, we extracted the mean cortical thickness in the PT, HGS, and the calcarine sulcus, bilaterally. In previous research, cross-modal activations of the PT in deaf people typically include portions of the laterally adjoining posterior superior temporal gyrus [ 21 — 2325 — 27 ].
The expansiveness of these activations is not surprising, considering that functional activations of the PT in general are not constrained by the gross anatomical borders of this region [ 53 ], which are in any case often difficult to identify [ 54 ].
The spatially extensive activity of the PT is consistent with the fact that the cytoarchitectonic fields of this area also extend into adjacent areas, including parietal operculum, superior temporal sulcus, and supramarginal gyrus [ 55 ]. With this in mind, we
Planum temporale boundaries in dating to expand the borders of our planum temporale ROI by five vertices, increasing the surface area from In order to distinguish this ROI from the standard planum temporale output of Freesurfer, we will herein refer to it as the planum temporale region PTR.
For each of our eight ROIs, we tested for a Pearson partial correlation between visual motion detection thresholds and mean cortical thickness with age as a covariate. This covariate was included based on evidence that both motion detection ability [ 56 ] and cortical thickness [ 57 ] decline with age during adulthood.
Specifically, a linear decrease of Additionally, in an earlier study from our lab that used the same task as used here to measure visual motion detection thresholds in 36 hearing and deaf adults, thresholds increased from twenty-one to fifty-six
Planum temporale boundaries in dating of age ; ; unpublished statistic with data from [ 12 ].
Based on this evidence, we reasoned that age may explain some of the variance in our hypothesized relationship between cortical thickness and visual motion detection thresholds, and thus its inclusion has the potential to strengthen the predicted effect.
Planum temporale boundaries in dating our primary hypothesis concerning the right PTR, we considered correlations where two-tailed to be significant. We made no prediction about the direction of the relationship, given that both increased [ 8 ] and decreased [ 58 ] cortical thickness have been associated with cross-modal plasticity in previous research in the blind. Blog Moderators
The remaining ROIs were exploratory, with mixed support for their involvement in cross-modal activity see Introductionand thus we applied a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, where we considered correlations of two-tailed to be significant. This threshold is equal to the threshold used for our primary hypothesis, divided by 7,
Planum temporale boundaries in dating is the number of exploratory comparisons that we pursued.
We also carried out a vertex-wise analysis within our ROIs in order to explore whether or not specific subregions of these areas were related to our behavioural measure. This was particularly relevant to the case of the PTR, which is thought to consist of several functional subregions [ 53 ], and the calcarine sulcus, where effects might be specific to the areas that represent peripheral visual space [ 59 ]. It should be noted that this second analysis differs from the first because it strived to localize changes within the ROIs, rather than identify which ROIs correlated with cortical thickness.
With this vertex-wise analysis we uncovered a subregion within the right PTR that varied in cortical thickness according to visual motion detection thresholds see Results. To further characterize the location of this subregion, we expanded it to include all adjacent vertices that passed a threshold of uncorrected, unconstrained by the boundaries of our ROI.
This was necessary to ensure that our result was primarily within the PTR, rather than an overlap from "Planum temporale boundaries in dating" cluster centered on an adjacent region. In an earlier fMRI study from our lab [ 25 ], we identified an area centered in the posterior superior temporal gyrus where deaf individuals showed activity in response to visual motion. Five participants from the current study took part in this earlier experiment, which tested early-deaf people with varying degrees of residual hearing [ 25 ].
To do so, we transformed the results from the previous study into the average surface space and calculated the percentage overlap of the two regions.
With real word stems, cortical...
Finally, in order to fully describe our effect, we compared its mean cortical thickness to that of 11 hearing controls from our earlier dataset [ 25 ] that were selected to match the age and gender distribution of the current study. The cortical thickness of the hearing control participants was measured with identical imaging and analysis parameters to those of the current study, described above.
Our primary "Planum temporale boundaries in dating" was that the cortical thickness of the right PTR would correlate with visual motion detection thresholds. Greater cortical thickness of this area was correlated with enhanced visual motion detection thresholds.
This effect was absent if age was removed as a covariate. There was no correlation between visual motion detection thresholds and cortical thickness in any other region left PTR: Mean cortical thickness values for each participant in each ROI are listed in Table 1.
In the vertex-wise regression within the ROIs, we uncovered a subregion of This expanded region had an average cortical thickness of 2. Consistent with our prediction, we found that cortical thickness in the right PTR correlates with enhanced performance on a visual motion detection task in early-deaf people: Greater cortical thickness was associated with better thresholds, when age was controlled for Figure 1. Our finding supports the idea that compensatory visual enhancements are supported by cross-modal structural plasticity after deafness, establishing the first direct evidence for this relationship in deaf humans.
The finding is consistent with prior data because it
Planum temporale boundaries in dating detected in a region where cross-modal activations in deaf people have been reported in previous studies [ 21 — 242627 ], including one from our lab [ 25 ] Figure 2. The relative closeness of these regions of effect supports the idea that they represent corresponding functional and anatomical cross-modal plasticity, particularly in the subregion where they overlap.
However, we cannot draw definitive
Planum temporale boundaries in dating from their comparison, as the studies used different participant groups and image processing strategies. Subscribe to Talking Brains
Regardless of their correspondence with one another, both results implicate posterior regions of the superior temporal lobe, confirming a role of this area in cross-modal reorganization after deafness.
The structure-behaviour relationship uncovered here is consistent with findings from congenitally deaf cats, which show that cross-modal activity supports enhanced visual abilities. In deaf cats, motion detection thresholds were associated with activity in a region that extends dorsally from primary auditory cortex, known as the auditory dorsal zone DZ.
Given their covariation in activity and thickness, resp. One prediction from this idea is that the cortical thickness of the
Planum temporale boundaries in dating and motion detection thresholds of deaf cats will correlate.
A comparison of cortical volume of the DZ in deaf and hearing cats found no global differences; however, neither cortical thickness nor the potential correlation between
Planum temporale boundaries in dating of activity and visual ability was examined [ 60 ].
However, con®rming a relationship. Left panels (brain images): the planum temporale boundaries in the left and right hemispheres from single slices in two. However, the specificity of the Heschl gyrus and planum temporale structural. In terms of operationalizing onset of psychosis, we selected date of first the roof of the white matter of STG was the inferior boundary of HG gray matter, and the.
The planum temporale is a gross anatomical feature. within the PT that themselves do not respect the anatomical boundaries of the region; breakdown of cortical regions based on up to date cytoarchitectonic analyses that.
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Stoic man: addiction and emotions... how far is the higher ground? This study examined the asymmetry of the planum temporale in 29 children .. ( G.W.H.), who provided guidance as to boundaries and measurement. . The relationships between verbal intelligence and PT asymmetry and. The planum temporale is a gross anatomical feature. within the PT that themselves do not respect the anatomical boundaries of the region; breakdown of cortical regions based on up to date cytoarchitectonic analyses that.. There was a problem providing the content you requested
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A, Coronal slice 1. The regions of interest suited for the structures are outlined: The gray matter of planum temporale PT is labeled yellow on submit left and blue on subject factual. B, Top-down view of the 3-dimensional reconstruction of HG and PT placed on incomparable of an axial alluring resonance imaging slice. The HG is red on subject left-hand and unversed on impose on right, and PT is blue on subject socialistic and yellow on cause right.
C, Three-dimensional reconstruction of the left and right regions of arouse, color coded as in section B but from a different projection of rotation from that in part B.
Note the tubular structure of the gray matter of the upper-class temporal gyrus, most absolutely seen anteriorly, where gray codes non-HG, non-PT portions of estimable temporal gyrus.
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To receive news and publication updates after Neural Plasticity, submit your email lecture in the casket below. This is an open access article distributed below the Creative Commons Attribution License Out of the ordinary, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
After sensory loss, the deprived cortex can reorganize to prepare information from the remaining modalities, a phenomenon known as cross-modal reorganization. In blind people that cross-modal processing supports compensatory behavioural enhancements in the nondeprived modalities. Deaf common people also show some compensatory visual enhancements, but a conduct relationship between these abilities and cross-modally reorganized auditory cortex has only anachronistic established in an animal model, the congenitally deaf cat, and not in humans.
We tested for a correlation between this weight and visual signal detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people represent enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory dominion, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual turbulence detection thresholds. That same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as necessary for functional reorganization.
When an personalized is deprived of a sensory modality, the other senses can compensate in spite of the loss with behavioural enhancements.
The study group consisted of 20 patients with schizophrenia 16 men, 4 women and 24 patients with bipolar disorder mania with psychotic features 18 men, 6 women. Third, operationalizing first episode as time of first hospitalization rather than as time of prodromal symptom onset may overestimate age at onset yet provides an unequivocal measure.
I would love to see my own various PT activations being mapped onto your suggested anterior—posterior delineation. However, findings have been inconsistent in MRI studies of schizophrenia. Create a personal account to register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles.
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Greg, I am glad that finally sees the planum speak up at stuffed volume here at talking brains. A very stimulating point you raise, and I am very apologetic to need your talk tomorrow. Could you kindly post the cytoarchitecture specification you refer to? I also homologous your fancy of for ever getting beyond the PT. I would love to see my own several PT activations being mapped onto your suggested anterior—posterior delineation.
Beside this allegation it is meant that it lacks specialty features of sensory cor- tex, i. It corresponds in location and appearance to Economo's and Koskinas's TA, '25 and Brodmann's limit 22 at its poste- rior the final blow ' Acreage Tpt habitually extends beyond the caudal end of the non-spiritual lobe to occupy unfixed amounts of suprasylvian cortex. More brand-new data from monkey picture work at hand Hackett corroborates this sight.
The locale raised here is just another depiction of the need after a more fine grained breakdown of cortical regions based on up to date cytoarchitectonic analyses that could be adopted as a criterion for the field.
Thursday, January 8, Functional categorization of the planum temporale. What I'm going to argue is that there is no such reaction.
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