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Asexual reproduction define biology class


Reproduction or procreation or breeding is the biological process by which new individual organisms — "offspring" — are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life ; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms. The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction.

By asexual Asexual reproduction define biology class, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists.

Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specialized organisms, called gameteswhich contain half the Asexual reproduction define biology class of chromosomes of normal cells and are created by meiosiswith typically a male fertilizing a female of the same species to create a fertilized zygote. This produces offspring organisms whose genetic characteristics are derived from those of the two parental organisms.

Asexual reproduction is a process by which organisms create genetically similar or identical copies of themselves without the contribution of genetic material from another organism. Bacteria divide asexually via binary fission ; viruses take control of host cells to produce more viruses; Hydras invertebrates of the order Hydroidea and yeasts are able to reproduce by budding.

These organisms often do not possess different sexes, and they are capable of "splitting" themselves into two or Asexual reproduction define biology class copies of themselves. Most plants have the ability to reproduce asexually and the ant species Mycocepurus smithii is thought to reproduce entirely by asexual means. Some species that are capable of reproducing asexually, like hydrayeast See Mating of yeasts and jellyfishmay also reproduce sexually.

For instance, most plants are capable of vegetative reproduction —reproduction without seeds or spores—but can also reproduce sexually.

Likewise, bacteria may exchange genetic information by conjugation. Other ways of asexual reproduction include parthenogenesisfragmentation and spore formation that involves only mitosis. Parthenogenesis is the growth and development of embryo or seed without fertilization by a male. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some species, including lower plants where it is called apomixisinvertebrates e.

It is sometimes also used to describe reproduction modes in hermaphroditic species which can self-fertilize. Sexual reproduction is a biological process that creates a Asexual reproduction define biology class organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms in a process that starts with meiosisa specialized type of cell division.

Each of two parent organisms contributes half of the offspring's genetic makeup by creating haploid gametes. Most organisms form two different types of gametes. In these anisogamous species, the two sexes are referred to as male producing sperm or microspores and female producing ova or megaspores. In isogamous speciesthe gametes are similar or identical in form isogametesbut may have separable properties and then may be given other different names see isogamy.

For example, in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtiithere are so-called "plus" and "minus" gametes. A few types of organisms, such as many fungi and the ciliate Paramecium aurelia[6] have more than two "sexes", called syngens.

Most animals including humans and plants reproduce sexually. Sexually reproducing organisms have different sets of genes for every trait called alleles. Offspring inherit one allele for each trait from each parent. Thus, offspring have a combination of the parents' genes. It is believed that "the masking of deleterious alleles favors the evolution of a dominant diploid phase in organisms that alternate between haploid and diploid phases" where recombination occurs freely.

Bryophytes reproduce sexually, but the larger and commonly-seen Asexual reproduction define biology class are haploid and produce gametes.

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