The early Freudian theory of psychosexual development consisted of four stages culminating in maturity at adolescence. This theory has been criticized as simplistic and overly deterministic in it's surplus emphasis on childhood events and their immutable effects upon an individual's personality. The O ral stage is contained within the first year of life and divided into two sub-stages.
The Oral-Receptive stage pertains to a babies initial means by gaining pleasure, through the oral interaction of breastfeeding. The later Oral-Sadistic phasewhich comes with the development of teeth is an early defense against an uncertain environment. The infant's reaction to breastfeeding and subsequent weaning can impact the quality of relationships later in life. Freud theorized that our lifelong oral orogeny, i. The Anal stage, occurring during year one through two, is also broken into two parts.
The early anal phase and late anal period. The early stage is characterized by defecation as an act of aggression.
The later stage transforms the act of defecation into a source of pride and pleasure for the child. They may feel accomplishment at what they have, "created," and may present it as a gift and Freud theorized that the way in which this gift is received is a formative factor in personality.
A positive reception engenders generosity and a punitive reception can lead to obsessive or narcissistic traits. The Phallic phase occurs during years 3 Freud wrote that we enter the genital stage of psychosexual development 4.
At this stage, auto-arousal becomes almost a universal for children as the genitals become a principle erogenous zone. How parents react to this and children's experience of this reaction can either engender shame or a healthy sexuality in the developed adult. Around age 5 until puberty, Freud believed children entered a latency period characterized by a lack of Psychosexual progress. The Genital phase is reached at puberty in which sexual desire is directed outward toward others, and the erogenous zones consolidate so as to allow the genitals to be the primary erogenous zone.
The Genital phase is ongoing throughout life after sexual maturity is reached. Freud spoke of a subsequent period of Psychological maturity, that can be completed after the four Psychosexual stages are successfully navigated but he regarded healthy completion of these stages and the attainment Freud wrote that we enter the genital stage of psychosexual development Psychological maturity to be a rare occurrence and thought people often became encumbered with neuroses as a result of frustrations during these stages.
He wrote little on this stage of Psychological maturity but it may be inferred that he was referring to a healthy structuring of the Id, Ego, and Superego. This healthy balance would allow for the Ego the realistic part of the personality that arbitrates between the Ego and the Superego putting commensurate limits upon the Id the aggressive and hedonistic part of the personality while fostering a relative equanimity with the Superego the part of the personality that recognizes social mores, norms, and expectations.
Erick Erickson revised and expanded the model of development into a model still highly regarded by Social scientist and Human Developmentalists today. There are a few concepts to understand before proceeding through this eight-stage model. The model hinges on 8 developmental milestones, or identity crises, which must be resolved by the individual.
These should not be regarded as crises is a traumatic sense but rather as pivotal turning points in life with which we all must contend. These crises are resolved either in a syntonic manner leading to a basic strength or a dystonic manner that can result in such an enervation of this basic strength so as to produce a core pathology. The successful resolution of these stages does not exist as a polar dichotomy but rather on a Freud wrote that we enter the genital stage of psychosexual development continuum that somewhat favors the syntonic over the dystonic.
His epigenetic principle states that if one crisis is not resolved adequately then all the subsequent stages of crises may suffer in turn and be consequently poorly resolved. This stage occurs in the first year of life and presents a crises between basic trust and basic mistrust based upon the Infants full sensory perception of their world.
If they are consistently attended to by their primary caregiver then they will develop the basic strength of hope. By experiencing both want and amelioration of want the infant will develop a future expectation regarding a world imbued with satisfactory outcomes. If they do not develop sufficient hope, based on reliable attention to their needs they will develop the core pathology of withdrawal.
This stage correlates to Freud's oral stage but was expanded by Erickson to become the oral-sensory mode.
Stage 2— Early Childhood: This is a period in which autonomy contends with shame and doubt. It Is a time of experimentation in which children try to do many things for themselves and inevitably fail at some attempts.
If they are repeated shamed in their attempts, or continually undermined by over-assistance in their endeavors they may develop the core pathology of compulsion. The desire to control the functions of the body during the second year which Freud recognized is mirror by Erickson's expanded anal-urethral-muscular mode.