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Affective cognitive and behavioral components of sexual disorders

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Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activityincluding physical pleasure, desirepreference, arousal or orgasm. According to the DSM-5sexual dysfunction requires a person to feel extreme distress and interpersonal strain for a minimum of six months excluding substance or medication-induced sexual dysfunction. A thorough sexual history and assessment of general health and other sexual problems if any are very important.

Assessing performance anxietyguiltstress and worry are integral to the optimal management of sexual dysfunction.

Many of the sexual dysfunctions that are defined are based on the human sexual response cycleproposed by William H. Masters and Virginia E.

Johnsonand then modified by Helen Singer Kaplan. Sexual dysfunction disorders may be classified into four categories: Sexual desire disorders or decreased libido are characterized by a lack or absence for some period of time of sexual desire or libido for sexual activity or of sexual fantasies.

The condition ranges from a general lack of sexual desire to a lack of sexual desire for the current partner.

The condition may have started after a period of normal sexual functioning or the person may always have had no or low sexual desire. The causes vary considerably, but include a possible decrease in the production of normal estrogen in women or testosterone in both men and women.

Other causes may be aging, fatigue, pregnancy, medications such as the SSRIs or psychiatric conditions, such as depression and anxiety. While a number of causes for low sexual desire are often cited, only some of these have ever been the object of empirical research. Sexual arousal disorders were previously known as frigidity in women and impotence in men, though these have now been replaced with less judgmental terms.

Impotence is now known as erectile dysfunctionand frigidity has been replaced with a number of terms describing specific problems that can be broken down into four categories as described by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: For both men and women, these conditions can manifest themselves as an aversion to, and avoidance of, sexual contact with a partner.

In men, there may be partial or complete failure to attain or maintain an erection, or a lack of sexual excitement and pleasure in sexual activity.

There may be physiological origins to these disorders, such as decreased blood flow or lack of vaginal lubrication. Chronic disease can also contribute, as well as the nature of the relationship between the partners. Additionally, the condition postorgasm illness syndrome POIS may cause symptoms when aroused, including adrenergic-type presentation; rapid breathing, paraesthesia, palpitations, headaches, aphasia, nausea, itchy eyes, fever, muscle pain and weakness and fatigue.

The aetiology of this condition is unknown, however it is believed to be a pathology of either the immune system or autonomic nervous systems. It is defined as a rare disease by the NIH but the prevalence is unknown. It is not thought Affective cognitive and behavioral components of sexual disorders be psychiatric in nature, but it may present as anxiety relating to coital activities and thus may be incorrectly diagnosed as such.

There is no known cure or treatment. Erectile dysfunction or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis.

There are various underlying causes, such as damage to the nervi erigentes which prevents or delays erection, or diabetes as well as cardiovascular disease, which simply decreases blood flow to the tissue in the penis, many of which are medically reversible.

The causes of erectile dysfunction may be psychological or physical. Psychological erectile dysfunction can often be helped by almost anything that the patient believes in; "Affective cognitive and behavioral components of sexual disorders" is a very strong placebo effect.

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