Photo by Kim Ball. A writing machine was patented in England ina music typewriter was invented c. Between and inventors in Europe and the US patented numerous writing machines with a wide range of designs. One of these early machines, Charles Thurber's Used typewriters Printeris pictured to the right and immediately below. If your browser automatically reduces the image so that it all fits on your computer screen, click on the image on the screen.
It should enlarge again. Each upper case Roman letter is formed by a number of raised dots. Each dot has a minute perforation its center.
This copy of the letter was retained by Elliott Used typewriters another copy was sent to his lawyer, J. We have seen a similar letter by Elliott dated Although the identity of the machine used to write Used typewriters letter is not yet known, the machine was designed for communication between blind people, or between a blind and a sighted person.
A number of typewriters for the blind were invented around this time, e. Several times a week the dauntless Quaker [who, in the letter, addressed his lawyer as "Friend J.
Stone" and "thee"] walked the two miles to Brookeville to fetch the mail. This was the first discovery of gold in Maryland. Photo of patent model courtesy of LIFE Photo Archive In its catalog, the Eastman Business College advertised that students with disabilities would be able to use Charles Thurber's Kaligraph writing machine rather than writing with a pen.
Image to left from the college catalog is courtesy of
Used typewriters Drummond.
Rasmus Malling-Hansen of Denmark introduced the first of a number of models of his Writing Ball around see image to left from the MBHTand he received his first patent in Writing Balls won several awards during the s on the European continent, where they were a commercial success, although the total number machines produced may have been only about The machines were produced by hand.
Malling-Hansen was experimenting with the placement of the letters already in - and he succeeded in finding a placement of the
Used typewriters that made the writing speed extremely fast. The model in the photograph to the right was introduced in For photographs of a Used typewriters model Writing Ball, click here.
A larger model of the Writing Ball powered by electricity was described in the January 15,issue of Harper's Weekly. Mares, The History of the TypewriterLondon,p. A number of original model Writing Balls survive, and this model has been reproduced. Initially, models of this machine were marketed by E. North, who Used typewriters became director of the U.
Census, claimed that in he was the first person to put the typewriter into "actual practical business usage. My machine did neither elegant nor uniform work, but after a week or two I was able to accomplish all my editorial writing upon it.
The machine evolved over those years, with the result that several models can be distinguished. Also, more than one version appear to have been produced at the same time, e. According to a discussion published in"In the spring of[George W. He then employed Charles Wyman, from the assembling department at the factory, to come to Cincinnati and Used typewriters the machines that had been sold in order and continue the sales.
For a photograph of a Remington No. In his history of the U. Patent Office, Robertson reports that around the Commissioner of the Patent Office Used typewriters that the Remington typewriter "would Used typewriters the way business was conducted and ordered its purchase and installation throughout his offices.
Other branches of the Interior Department followed suit.
Robertson, Temple of Invention, pp. Scientific AmericanMar. Remington, Caligraph and Hammond were the three major brands during the s.
Typewriters did not become common in offices until after the mids. Typewriters are not even mentioned in G. Power, The Secrets of Success in Business, a page volume on office practice and equipment written by teachers at business Yates reports that "The first use of the typewriter in the Illinois Central [Railroad] occurred in the New Orleans office in or It was not until that the first typed letters emerged from the Chicago and New York offices, and not until the s that typed letters became more the norm than the exception Used typewriters the company.
The "Used typewriters" of the Scoville Manufacturing Co. Yates reports that "In Used typewriters first typewritten letters appeared in Scovill's press books, interspersed with the still more common handwritten ones By Scovill had hired a female typist.
The main Du Pont office obtained its first typewriter in Duringwhen it was the only US producer of typewriters, Remington's annual sales were roughly 1, machines. In a March ad for the Remington Perfected Type Writer, Remington claimed that 10, of its typewriters were in Used typewriters. In the same ad Remington claimed thatits Perfected Type Writer "Writes three times "Used typewriters" fast as best penman.
Remington ads claimed that 40, Remington machines were in use in Remington sold somewhat overtypewriters between and First, typing on a keyboard machine was faster than writing with a pen. In the mids, typists commonly used only the first two fingers of each hand.
Even intypists commonly used two, four, six, or eight fingers, and at least some of the agents selling all the major keyboard typewriter "Used typewriters" recommended using six fingers. The Stenographer
Used typewriters,p. Touch typing, which was consistent with use of "Used typewriters" or more fingers, spread after a highly publicized contest in demonstrated its superiority see ad at right.
Second, typewriters could make multiple copies with the improved carbon paper that came into use in the Used typewriters and with the typewriter stencils that were introduced in the late s. Carbon paper and stencil duplication are discussed in the Museum's exhibit on copying machines. While many typewriter designs were introduced the s and s, the upstrike typewriter was the office standard throughout this period. The illustration to the right shows how the hinged carriage of a Remington No.
The most popular upstrike typewriters were Remingtons, followed by Caligraphs in the s and Smith Premiers in the s. Caligraph claimed that it sold 10, machines between and10, more inand another 10, in According to an trade press account, "The universal popularity of writing machines is one of the features of the present day.
Figures furnished by the various makers show that between 60, and 70, are already in use. Of this number the Remington people claim to have about 35,; Caligraph, about 15,; while the balance is made up of the Hammond, Crandall, Hall, Columbia, Sun, World, and others.
About one-sixth of the total produce finds a sale in New York city. Smith Premier claimed that it sold 27, typewriters between and, typewriters between andandtypewriters between and InRemington claimed to be producing more typewriters than all other "high priced" brands combined.
In addition to upstrikes, single-element Hammond typewriters were used in some late 19th century offices. Inthe Elmira School of Commerce advertised openings for students to learn to operate Hammonds.