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Homosexuality in the us military

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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT personnel are able to serve "Homosexuality in the us military" the armed forces of some countries around the world: This keeps pace with the latest global figures on acceptance of homosexuality, which suggest that acceptance of LGBT communities is becoming more widespread only in secular, affluent countries.

However, an accepting policy toward gay and lesbian soldiers does not invariably guarantee that LGBT citizens are immune to discrimination in that particular society. Even in countries where LGBT persons are free to serve in the military, activists lament that there remains room for improvement.

Israelfor example, a country that otherwise struggles to implement LGBT-positive social policy, nevertheless has a military well known for its broad acceptance of openly gay soldiers.

History has seen societies that both embrace and shun openly gay service-members in the military. But more recently, the high-profile hearings on " Don't ask, don't tell " in the United States propelled the issue to the center of international attention. They also shed light both on the routine discrimination, violence, and hardship faced by LGBT-identified soldiers, as well as arguments for and against a ban on their service.

The LGBT Military Index is an index created by The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies that uses 19 indicative policies and best practices to rank over countries on the inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender service members in the armed forces. Countries with higher rankings, especially the ones at the top, stand out for their multiple concerted efforts to promote the inclusion of gay and lesbian soldiers. In many of them special support and advocacy organizations Homosexuality in the us military present.

By contrast, countries near the bottom of the index show the lack of aspiration to promote greater inclusion of the LGBT military personnel. Throughout history, there have been several cultures which have looked favorably on homosexual behavior in the military.

Perhaps the most well-known example is found in ancient Greece and Rome. Homosexual behavior was encouraged among soldiers because it was thought to increase unit cohesiveness, morale and bravery. However, homosexual behavior has been considered a criminal offense according to civilian and military law in most countries throughout history. There are various accounts of trials and executions of members of the Knights Templar in the 14th Century and British sailors during the Napoleonic wars for homosexuality.

To regulate homosexuality in the U. Many soldiers accused of homosexual behavior were discharged for being "sexual psychopaths", although the number of discharges greatly decreased during wartime efforts. The rationale for excluding gays and lesbians from serving in the military is often rooted in cultural norms and values and has changed over time.

Originally, it was believed that gays were not physically able to serve effectively. The pervading argument during the 20th century focused more on military effectiveness. And finally, more recent justifications include the potential for conflict between heterosexual and Homosexuality in the us military service members and possible "heterosexual resentment and hostility.

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Many countries have since revised these policies and allow gays and lesbians to openly serve in the military e. Israel in and the UK in There are currently 26 countries which allow gays and lesbians to serve and around 10 more countries that don't outwardly prohibit them from serving.

In an inherently violent environment, LGBT people may face violence unique to their community in the course of military service. For instance, the Israeli Defense Force does not ask the sexual orientation of its soldiers, however half of the homosexual soldiers who serve in the IDF suffer from violence and homophobia.

LGBT soldiers are often victims of verbal and physical violence and for the Homosexuality in the us military part, commanders ignore the phenomenon. The report doesn't have any paragraph studying the specific situation of LGBT people. The study focuses on men and women. The specificity of the violence faced by LGBT people is not considered. In the Australian army, the problem is not known officially, only few cases of harassment and discrimination involving gays and lesbians have been recorded.

A researcher mentioned that "one would not want to be gay and in the military": Although there has been no major public scandal regarding harassment of gays, this does not mean that such behavior does not occur, but it has been under-studied.

Homosexuals in the Elizabeth Kier...

Generally, however, incidents of discrimination or harassment brought to the attention of commanders are handled appropriately, incidents in which peers who had made inappropriate remarks are disciplined by superiors promptly and without reservation.

Like sexual orientation, policies regulating the "Homosexuality in the us military" of transgender military personnel vary greatly by country. Based on data collected by the Hague Centre for Strategic Studies [24] seventeen countries currently allow transgender people to serve in their military. While the US military's Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy was rescinded in allowing open service by gay, lesbian, and bisexual service members, transgender people are still barred from entering the US Military.

Despite this, studies suggest that the propensity of trans individuals to serve in the US military is as much as twice that as cisgender individuals.

American transgender veterans face institutional hardships, including the provision of medical care while in Homosexuality in the us military armed services and after discharge stemming from their gender identity or expression. Transgender veterans may also face additional challenges, such as facing a higher rate of homelessness and home foreclosure, higher rates of losing jobs often directly stemming from their trans identity, and high rates of not being hired for specific jobs because of their gender identity.

The armed forces of Israel, the United States and Australia have employed intersex individuals depending on the nature of their conditions, but the guidelines are vague and seldom talked about. In the US armysix states Texas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma and West Virginia initially refused [ needs update ] to comply with Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel's order that gay spouses of National Guard members be given the same federal marriage benefits as heterosexual spouses, forcing couples to travel hours round trip to the nearest federal installation.

Furthermore, some benefits offered on bases, like support services Homosexuality in the us military relatives of deployed service members, could still be blocked. Fear of discrimination may prevent military service members to be open about their sexual orientation. In some cases, in Belgium, homosexual personnel have been transferred from their unit if they have been "too open with their sexuality.

Serving openly may make their service less pleasant or impede their careers, even though there were no explicit limitations to serve. Thus service members who "Homosexuality in the us military" their homosexuality were "appropriately" circumspect in their behavior while in military situations; i.

Until training is completed and a solid employment is fixed they fear losing respect, authority and privileges, or in worse cases their job in the Danish army. Commanders said that sexual harassment of women by men poses a far greater threat to unit performance than anything related to sexual orientation.

On the other hand, the Dutch military directly addressed the issue of enduring discrimination, by forming the Homosexuality and Armed Forces Foundation, a trade union that continues to represent gay and lesbian personnel to the ministry of defense, for a more tolerant military culture. Although homosexuals in the Dutch military rarely experience any explicitly aggressive acts against them, signs of homophobia and cultural insensitivity are still present.

In the United States, despite policy changes allowing for open LGBQ military service and the provision of some benefits to same-sex military couples, cultures of homophobia and discrimination persist. Several academics have written on the effects on employees in non-military contexts concealing their sexual orientation in the workplace. Writers on military psychology have linked this work to the experiences of LGBQ military service personnel, asserting that these studies offer insights into the lives of open LGBQ soldiers and those who conceal their orientation.

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