Chun Doo-hwan Korean pronunciation: Chun was sentenced to death in for his role in the Gwangju Massacre but was later pardoned by President Kim Young-samwith the advice of then President-elect Kim Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunctionwhom Chun's administration had sentenced to death some 20 years earlier.
Chun was born on 18 January in Yulgok-myeon, a poor farming town in HapcheonSouth Gyeongsang province, during the Imperial Japanese rule of Korea. Chun grew up knowing his remaining older brother Ki-hwan and his younger brother Kyeong-hwan. Chun's father had run-ins with the Japanese police in the past, and in the winter of he murdered a police captain.
When Chun finally started attending elementary school again, he was 2 years behind his original classmates. While there, he made several key friends among the students who would later play instrumental roles in helping Chun to seize control of the country.
He graduated in February with a Bachelor of Science degree and a commission as a second lieutenant in the 11th class of the KMA. He later trained in the United States, specializing in guerilla tactics and psychological warfareand married Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction Soon-ja, the daughter of the KMA's commandant at
Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction time of his attendance, in Chun was subsequently made secretary to the commander of the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction  placing him directly under Park.
Chun was quickly promoted to major inwhile continuing to make powerful friends and acquaintances. As a major, Chun was the deputy chief of operations for the Special Warfare Command 's battle headquarters, and later worked for the Supreme Council for Reconstruction again as the Chief Civil Affairs Officer.
Byhe was senior advisor to the Army Chief of Staff. Inholding the rank of colonel, Chun became the commander of the 29th Regiment, South Korean 9th
Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction Divisionand participated in the Vietnam War. Upon returning to Korea inhe was given command of the 1st Special Forces Brigade Airborne and later promoted to brigadier general. In he worked as the deputy chief of the Presidential Security Service and was promoted to the rank of major general during his time there.
In he became the commanding officer of the 1st Infantry Division. Finally, inhe was appointed commander of Security Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunctionhis highest position yet. Chun formed Hanahoe as a secret military club shortly after his promotion to general officer. It was predominantly composed of his fellow graduates from the 11th class of the Korea Military Academy, as well as other friends and supporters.
The membership to this secret club was predominately restricted to officers from the Gyeongsang Provinces with just a token membership reserved for a Cholla Provinces' officer. This secret organization's existence within a highly regimented and rigid hierarchical organization of the army was only possible because it was under the patronage of then President Park Chung-hee. Although Jeong Seung-hwa was neither present during nor involved in the shooting of the President, his involvement later proved crucial.
In the chaos that followed, Kim Jae-kyu was not arrested for many hours, as Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction of the incident were initially unclear. After some confusion over the constitutional procedures for presidential succession, Prime Minister Choi Kyu-ha finally ascended to the position of Acting President. Soon after, Jeong named Chun's Security Command to head up the investigation into the mysterious assassination.
Chun immediately ordered his subordinates to draw up plans for the creation of an all-powerful "Joint Investigation Headquarters". On 27 October, Chun called for a meeting in his commander's office. Invited were four key individuals now responsible for all intelligence collection nationwide: Chun declared the KCIA held full responsibility for the President's assassination, and its organization was therefore under investigation for the crime. Chun stated that the KCIA would no longer be allowed to exercise its own budget:.
For the KCIA "to continue exercising full discretion of their budget is unacceptable. Therefore, they are only allowed to execute their duties upon receiving authorization from the Joint Investigation Headquarters. Jeon subsequently ordered all intelligence reports to now be sent to his office at 8: In one move, Chun had taken control of the entire nation's intelligence organizations. In front of the most powerful organizations under the Park Chung-hee presidency, it surprised me how easily [Chun] gained control over them and how skillfully he took advantage of the circumstances.
In an instant he seemed to have grown into a giant. He was reprimanded for this by General Jeong. In the following month Chun, along with Roh Tae-wooYu Hak-seong, Heo Sam-su, and others from the 11th graduating class of the KMA, continued taking advantage of the fragile political situation to grow Hanahoe's strength, courting key commanders and subverting the nation's intelligence gathering organizations.
This order was made without authorization from President Choi. On the night of Jeong's capture, 29th Regiment, 9th Divisionalong with the 1st and 3rd Airborne Brigades, invaded downtown Seoul to support the 30th and 33rd Security Group loyal to Chun, then a series of conflicts broke out in the capital. Jang Tae-wancommander of the Capital Garrison Command and Jeong Byeong Ju, commander of the special forces, were also arrested by the rebel troops. By Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction next morning, the Ministry of Defense and Army HQ were all occupied, and Chun was in firm control of the military.
For all intents and purposes, he was now the de facto leader of the country. In earlyChun was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general, and he took up the position of acting director of the KCIA. On 17 MayChun expanded martial law to the entire country, due to rumors of North Korean infiltration into South Korea.
To enforce the martial law, troops were dispatched to various parts of the nation.
Wickham US Armed Forces in Korea reported that Chun's pessimistic assessment of the domestic situation and his stress on the North Korean threat only seemed to be a pretext for a move into the Blue House the Korean presidential residence.
The event of 17 May meant the beginning of another military dictatorship. Many townsfolk were growing unhappy with the military presence in their cities, and on 18 May, the citizens of Gwangju organized into what became known as the Gwangju Democratization Movement. Chun ordered it to be immediately suppressed, sending in crack military troops with tanks and helicopter gunships to retake City Hall and ordered the troops to exercise full force.
This led to a bloody massacre over the next two days, ultimately leading to the collapse of the Gwangju Democratization Movement and the deaths of
Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction hundred Gwangju activists.
Because of this remarkable "accomplishment", he was called "The Butcher of Gwangju" by many people, especially among the students.
In JuneChun ordered the National Assembly to be On 5 August, with full control of the military he was self-promoted to four star General and on 22 August he was discharged from active duty to the Army reserves.
Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction in Augustcitizens were subjected to organized violence under the name of social cleansing, which Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction at the elimination of social ills, such as violence, smuggling, drugs and deceptions. They were arrested without proper warrants and given ex parte rankings. Some 42, victims were enrolled in the Samchung Re-education Camp for "purificatory education". More than 60, people were arrested in six months between August and Januaryincluding many innocent citizens.
They faced violence and hard labour in the Re-education Camp. In AugustChoi, who had long since become little more than a figurehead, announced that he would be resigning the presidency. Chun was the sole candidate. Out of members, voted for Chun with 1 vote counted as invalid, thus with a tally of He was officially inaugurated into office on 1 September On 17 October, he abolished all political parties —including Park's Democratic Republican Partywhich had essentially ruled the country as a one-party state since the imposition of the Yushin Constitution.
In JanuaryChun formed his own party, the Democratic Justice Party ; however, for all intents and purposes, it was Park's Democratic Republican Party under another name. Soon afterward, a new constitution was enacted that, while far less authoritarian than Park's Yusin Constitution, still gave fairly broad powers to the president.
He was then re-elected president by the National Conference later that January, taking 90 percent of the delegates vote against three minor candidates. Inin the face of increased tension with the U. After receiving this promise, the Reagan administration decided to fully recognize Chun's military government.
In the late s, South Korea and the U. This compromise came into effect in under the name Missile Technology Control Regime. After his election inChun completely rejected the presidency of Park, even going so far as to strike all references to Park's military coup from the Chun announced that he would be restoring justice to the government to remove the fraud and corruption of Park's tenure. Chun's government did not have the considerable political influence enjoyed by Park Chung-hee's administration.
His government could not ignore American influence, and he ended South Korea's nuclear weapons program. Chun needed to be recognized by the United States to legitimize his government. After his inauguration, Chun clamped down on out-of-school tutoring and banned individual teaching or tutoring. In SeptemberChun repealed "guilt by association" laws. InChun enacted "Care and Custody" legislation; Chun believed that criminals who finish their prison time for a repeat offense should not be immediately returned to society.
With the military coup taking power and crushing the democratization movements country-wide, the citizens' political demands were being ignored, and in this way the 3S Policy S ex, S creen, S ports was passed. Based on right-way Japanese activist Sejima Ryuzo 's proposal, Chun tried to appeal to Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction citizens in order to ensure the success of the Seoul Olympics preparations.
Chun rapidly enacted various Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction to this end, forming a pro baseball and pro soccer team, starting the broadcast of color TV throughout the nation as a whole, lessening censorship on sexually suggestive dramas and movies, making school uniforms voluntary, and so forth.
InChun held a large-scale festival called "Korean Breeze", but it was largely ignored by the population. InChun was the target of a failed assassination attempt by North Korean agents during a visit to Rangoon, Burma. The North Korean bombing killed 17 of Chun's entourage, Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction cabinet ministers. Four Burmese government officials were also killed in the attack.
Chun's presidency occurred during the Cold War, and his foreign policies were based around combating communism not only from North Korea, but also from the Soviet Union and Communist China. The United States put pressure on the South Korean government to abandon its plans to develop nuclear weapons. Japanese newspapers widely reported that Chun was the de facto leader of the country months before he made any move to become President. InChun announced the "Korean People Harmony Democracy Reunification Program", but due to repeated rejections from North Korea the program was unable to get off the ground.
Also from tohe and President Corazon Aquino of the Philippines established talks between the two countries for strengthening Philippine-South Korean economic, social and cultural friendship. From the start of his presidency, Chun began grooming Noh Shin-yeong as his eventual successor. When that became widely known, those supporting Chun's regime were highly critical of his choice of successor.
His supporters, mostly those with heavy military backgrounds, believed that the proper way to groom a successor was by military duties, not political positions. Chun was eventually persuaded to reverse his position and ceased pushing for Noh Shin-yeong to succeed him.
The constitution restricted the president to a single seven-year term. Unlike his predecessors, Chun did not attempt to amend the document to run "Rhee syngman wife sexual dysfunction" in However, he consistently resisted pleas to open up the regime. governments led by Presidents Syngman Rhee and then Chung Hee Park -- has.