The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that, just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiationsuch exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult.
The hormonal theory of sexuality and gender identity holds that, just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiation, such exposure also influences the sexual orientation and or gender identity that emerges later in the adult. Differences in brain structure that come about from chemical messengers and genes interacting on developing brain cells are believed to be the basis of sex differences in countless behaviors, including sexual orientation.
As seen in young children as well as in vervet and rhesus monkeys, sexually differentiated behavior in toy preference is differing in males versus females, where females prefer dolls and males prefer toy balls and cars; these preferences can be seen as early as 3—8 months in humans.
An endocrinology study by Garcia-Falgueras and Swaab postulated that "In humans, the main mechanism responsible of [ sic ] sexual identity and orientation involves a direct effect of testosterone on the developing brain. Sketching the argument briefly here, the authors say that sexual organs are differentiated first, and then the brain is sexually differentiated "under the influence, mainly, of sex hormones such as testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on the developing brain cells and under the presence of different genes as well The changes brought about in this stage are permanent.
Fetal gonads develop primarily based on the presence or absence of androgen hormones, mainly testosteronedihydrotestosterone DHT and androstenedione ; production of testosterone and conversion into dihydrotestosterone during weeks 6 to 12 of pregnancy are key factors in the production of a male fetus's penis, scrotum and prostate. Most extensively studied in organizational effects of hormones is congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH.
As of results from studies in humans had found conflicting evidence regarding the effect of prenatal exposure to hormones and psychosexual outcomes; Gooren noted in that studies in subprimate mammals are invalid measures of human sexual differentiation, as sex hormones follow a more "on-off" role in sex-typed behavior than is found in primates.
Some studies do "Does a chemical imbalance cause homosexuality" that prenatal stress significantly increases the likelihood of homosexuality or bisexualityalthough varying evidence exists for which trimester is most important. Some have postulated that postnatal e. Children born through artificial insemination with donor sperm and consequently raised by lesbian couples have typically been heterosexually oriented.
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There is evidence of a correlation
Does a chemical imbalance cause homosexuality sexual orientation and traits that are determined in utero. According to some studies, gay men have more older brothers on average, a phenomenon known as the fraternal birth order effect. It has been suggested that the greater the number of older male siblings the higher the level of androgen fetuses are exposed to.
No evidence of birth order effects have been observed in women. The theory holds that the fraternal birth order effect is a result of a maternal immune response that is produced towards a factor of male development over several male pregnancies. Antimale antibodies might bind to these molecules and thus interfere with their role in normal sexual differentiation, leading some later born males to being attracted to men as opposed to women.
The chance of such an immune response to male factors would increase with every pregnancy resulting in the birth of a son. While direct support has not been found for these hypotheses, evidence that favours this theory exists.
Some did not find any statistically significant difference in either the sibling composition or rate of older brothers of gay and straight men,   including large, nationally representative studies in the US and Denmark.
In conjunction with fraternal birth order, handedness provides further evidence of prenatal effects on sexual orientation, because handedness is regarded by many as a marker of early neurodevelopment.
A male mouse's desire to...
Other correlates to handedness e. A gene of the Rh system has been discussed as a possible candidate for affecting fraternal birth order, as it has been linked to both handedness and immune system functioning.
The hormonal theory of sexuality...
The Rh gene hypothesis is a strong candidate because not only does it
Does a chemical imbalance cause homosexuality the maternal immune response, but it has been implicated in handedness as well.
Variants of the androgen receptor AR gene have also been discussed, in that non-right-handedness in men has been linked with greater CAG repeats in the AR gene, which in turn is associated with lower testosterone. A theory that high prenatal testosterone leads to neuronal and axonal loss in the corpus callosum is supported by this hypothesis. In a study, Simon LeVay demonstrated that a tiny clump of neurons of the anterior hypothalamus —which is believed to control sexual behavior and linked to prenatal hormones—known as the interstitial nuclei of the anterior was, on average, more than twice the size in heterosexual men when contrasted to homosexual men.
Due to this area also being nearly twice the size in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women, the implication is that the sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus in homosexuals is in a female direction.
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Later studies in humans, however, have yet to confirm this finding. Most empirical or theoretical research into women's sexual orientation has, historically, been guided by the idea of lesbians as essentially masculine and heterosexual women as essentially feminine.
Diethylstilbestrol DESa drug that has been in the past prescribed to prevent miscarriages, has also been studied in relation to women's sexual orientation.
Girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia an autosomal recessive condition which results in high androgen levels during fetal development have more masculinized sex role
Does a chemical imbalance cause homosexuality and are more likely to have a homosexual sexual orientation as adults than controls.
Born Gay? as a cause...
However, the degree to which the girls' genitals are masculinized does not correlate with their sexual orientation, suggesting that prenatal hormones are a stronger causal factor, not parental influence. Together with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, DES studies have provided little support of the prenatal hormone theory of sexual orientation; they do, however, provide the framework for possible pathways to a homosexual orientation for a small number of women.
In individuals with gender dysphoriapreviously known as gender identity disorder GIDprenatal exposure to testosterone has been hypothesized to have an effect on gender identity differentiation. The 2D;4D finger ratio, or relative lengths of the 2nd "index" and 4th "ring" fingers, has become a popular measure of prenatal androgen because of accumulated evidence suggesting the 2D;4D ratios are related to prenatal exposure to testosterone.
Adults with "late onset", or those without a childhood history of said behavior, are more likely to have a non-homosexual
Does a chemical imbalance cause homosexuality. Prenatal androgen exposure has been associated with an increased chance of patient-initiated gender reassignment to male after being initially raised as female in early childhood or infancy.
Because organ differentiation and brain differentiation occur at different times, in rare cases transsexualism can result. Drawing on some transsexualism cases, Garcia-Falgueras and Swaab state that "[f]rom these examples it appears that the direct action of testosterone on the developing brain in boys and the lack of such action on the developing brain in girls are crucial factors in the development of male and female gender identity and sexual orientation Factors implicated in the development of transsexuality include chromosomal abnormalities, polymorphisms
Does a chemical imbalance cause homosexuality certain genes, and variations in aromatase cytochrome P CYP19 and CYP Due to relatively small population sizes, generalizability of studies on transsexuality cannot be assumed.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals EDCs are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with the endocrine system in mammals. Such agents are not hormones. They should not be expected to act precisely as hormones. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexual hormones and the brain: Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Swaab 18 February Relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders". Effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation.
The Role of Testosterone and Sexual Orientation". Archives of Sexual Behavior. A hypothesis for the origin of handedness and functional asymmetry".
Marc Breedlove; Kelly L. The concept and initial practical experiences]".
Last Reviewed, June 05, Retrieved from " https: Sexual orientation and science Sexual orientation and medicine Biology of gender. CS1 German-language sources de Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November Views Read Edit View history.
Born Gay? as a cause of lesbianism, it was possible that this hormone imbalance could be linked to both the medical condition and sexuality. A male mouse's desire to mate with either a male or a female is determined by the brain chemical serotonin,
Does a chemical imbalance cause homosexuality report in a new study.
Indeed, over the past 2 decades, researchers have turned up considerable evidence that homosexuality isn't a lifestyle choice, but is rooted in.
A pride march in Belgrade last month. Indeed, over the past 2 decades, researchers have turned up considerable evidence that homosexuality isn't a lifestyle choice, but is rooted in a person's biology and at least in part determined by genetics. A new study of male twins, scheduled for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics ASHG in Baltimore, Maryland, today, could help explain that paradox. It finds that epigenetic effects, chemical modifications of the human genome that alter gene activity without changing the DNA sequence, may have a major influence on sexual orientation.
But Rice and others caution that the research is still preliminary and based on a small sample. The discovery generated worldwide headlines, but some teams were unable to replicate the findings and the actual genes have not been found—not even by a team that vindicated Hamer's identification of Xq28 in a sample size 10 times larger than his last year.
Twin studies suggested, moreover, that gene sequences can't be the full explanation. That's why some have suggested that epigenetics—instead of or in addition to traditional genetics—might be involved. During development, chromosomes are subject to chemical changes that don't affect the nucleotide sequence but can turn genes on or off; the best known example is methylation, in which a methyl group is attached to specific DNA regions.
Recent studies, however, have shown that some marks are passed on to the next generation. In a paper, Rice and his colleagues suggested that such unerased epi-marks might lead to homosexuality when they are passed on from father to daughter or from mother to son.
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From an evolutionary point of view, homosexuality is to some extent difficult to explain. Any genetic feature that reduces the chances of producing the progeny usually gets eliminated sheerest quickly in populations. Nonetheless, homosexuality appears to persist in humans throughout the history of our species. There are multiple hypotheses attempting to explain that phenomenon but no eager proofs confirming any of them.
Various scientists fancy that lustful orientation is determined through peculiarities in the building of the brain. Although at right now time we cannot state what arranges people gay, we can study their brain to see how their earthy orientation is reflected in the scheme it functions.
Gender uniqueness , which is the feeling of being compatible a bracelets or a woman, influences various aspects of android behavior.
These include fitting of toys as a child and gender-specific cognitive, motor, and personality characteristics. Gender sameness also has a character to horse around in determining sexuality. And all these developments are triggered nigh testosterone. Virile and female fetuses restyle in the level of this fucking hormone.
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Why does she still care about me? Born Gay? as a cause of lesbianism, it was possible that this hormone imbalance could be linked to both the medical condition and sexuality. A male mouse's desire to mate with either a male or a female is determined by the brain chemical serotonin, scientists report in a new study..
GENETIC MODIFICATIONS THAT RESPOND TO HORMONES IN THE WOMB MAY EXPLAIN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOSEXUALITY. HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE BRAIN | BRAIN BLOGGER
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Meaningful women who take progesterone as element of hormone therapy may increase the likelihood that their lady will pinpoint as hermaphrodite or sapphist. Scientists be experiencing discovered that people whose mothers took progesterone while pregnant name as heterosexual less many times than those whose nurse did not receive progesterone treatment.
Of age children of mothers who received hormone treatment are more attainable to include thought around having coitus with someone of the same union than those in a control class, shows the new ruminate on. The unknown study is published in the meticulous journal Archives of Lustful Behaviour.
Mortensen emphasises in any event, that sex orientation should not be considered as a nothing but side conclusion of progesterone treatment in pregnant women. Progesterone is found as expected in the body. And pregnant women run the risk of miscarriage if their honest of progesterone is too low.
Here, progesterone treatment can cut down on this jeopardy. Contraception influences sexual fondness in committed relationships. The new about includes evidence from 34 Danes 17 men and women born at the University Clinic in Copenhagen, Denmark, amidst and Politesse, as factor of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort.
When the children were close to 23 they were asked to settled a questionnaire about their sexual location and interviewed by a psychologist.
Possible link between hormone...
To test how important the five regions are, the team divided the discordant twin pairs into two groups. Personally, I like the definition of John Money. But testosterone doesn't explain everything, the researchers found. With Democrats in control of U. This tug of war benefits the unborn child, keeping male or female development on a steady course even amid spikes in hormones. These areas include the hypothalamus and the amygdala. Is ride-sharing killing people?
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